The interrelation between Muslim civil society and the state in the history of Islamic philanthropy in Indonesia is dynamic.
Faith and the State offers a comprehensive historical development of Islamic philanthropy—zakat (almsgiving), sedekah (donation) and waqf (religious endowment)—from the time of the Islamic monarchs, through the period of Dutch colonialism and up to contemporary Indonesia. It shows a rivalry between faith and the state: between efforts to involve the state in managing philanthropic activities and efforts to keep them under control of Muslim civil society.
Philanthropy is an indication of the strength of civil society. When the state was weak, philanthropy developed powerfully and was used to challenge the state. When the state was strong, Muslim civil society tended to weaken but still found ways to use philanthropic practices in the public sphere to promote social change.
Faith and the State: A History of Islamic Philanthropy in Indonesia
Dr. Amelia Fauzia, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University, Jakarta
2013, 346pp, BRILL