The 4Cs Framework defines 3 Outcome Areas under each of the 4 C categories of activity. A description is provided for each one - the actual outcome and the indicators are for the organization applying the framework to define itself.
It is intended that the organization applying the framework then indentifies a distinctive set of indicators for which it is feasible to acquire data that are relevant, accurate, and credible, and that data collection can be repeated over time. As shown in the example below
A critical starting point for the application of the Framework is a Theory of Change which defines the Outcomes. As such, the structure of the Framework itself has proven to be of help to organizations to consider the full range of outcomes, to develop or modify their Theory of Change, and to plan their activities. The Theory of Change is thus the catalyst that transforms the Framework from a global system to bespoke application.
The Theory of Change will set the activity of the organization in its own context – taking into consideration the ecosystem within which it operates including the legal and fiscal frameworks that form the operating environment, the state and potential of philanthropy, the needs of foundations and donors, and the activities of other support organizations.
It is important to note, as in the case of any evaluation, when undertaking analysis of change, is to take into consideration, what or who else contributed to the change (i.e. to identify actual additionality / contribution by seeking to identify net change through accounting for deadweight, displacement, and substitution, and understanding multiplier effects).